HORÁCKO - ECOLOGICAL MICROREGION
BEGINNINGS OF SETTLEMENT
The oldest documents about settlement of today΄s area of the microregion of Horácko date from the Paleolithic. Historical findings from this area show that this region was peopled during various historical periods. The greatest number of findings dates back to the Neolithic. However, Paleolithic, Aeneolithic, and Bronze-Age articles were also found. Some articles date as far back as the Slavonic and the Roman period.
FIRST MENTIONS OF PLACES OF SETTLEMENT
The oldest mention of places of settlement in the region is in the copy of foundation charter of Třebíč΄s monastery dated 1101, where many villages are mentioned, some of which now belong to the area of the microregion. In 1115 the document was attached to the supplement of the Kosmas Chronicle of Bohemians. The decision to found the Benedictine monastery in Třebíč was made by Moravian princes Oldřich Brněnský and Litolt Znojemský. In the years 1101-1104 they donated to the monastery many sites, some of which are now communities and villages of the microregion of Horácko.
Some villages disappeared.
FOUNDATION OF OTHER PLACES OF SETTLTEMENT
By the end of the 14th century, there are some mentions known of all villages of today΄s microregion, with the exception of Klementice. At the end of the 18th century, the state of villages was practically the same as today. Political division was very unstable at that time. Basically, the area was divided into two regions. Firstly, the demesne of Náměšť, which belonged to the region of Znojmo; secondly, the demesnes of Budišov, Třebíč, and Velké Meziříčí, which belonged to the region of Jihlava.
ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION DURING THE PERIOD OF AUSTRIAN MONARCHY
Whereas regional division remained practically unchanged, districts were established after the year 1855, from which judicial districts were formed, and those were associated to form political districts. At that time the area of today΄s microregion belonged to four judicial districts. Two of them, Třebíč (the region of Jihlava) and Náměšť (the region of Znojmo), formed political district of Třebíč. The other two, the district of Velké Meziříčí (the region of Jihlava) and the district of Velká Bíteš (the region of Znojmo), formed political district of Velké Meziříčí. These judicial districts existed practically up to 1948.
FORMATION OF NEW REGIONS
New regions and districts were formed in 1949. Districts of Třebíč and Velké Meziříčí remained part of the region of Jihlava, whose area was newly defined. The region of Brno was also redivided, new part of which became the district of Velká Bíteš comprising also the area of the former district of Náměšť. At the same time historical boundaries of Moravia disappeared.
NEW DIVISION OF SOCIALISTIC CZECHOSLOVAKIA
When the Czechoslovakian Socialistic Republic was formed, regions were united and redivided in 1960. Today΄s microregion thus belongs to the district of Třebíč of the then region of South Moravia whose seat was in Brno. The abolishment of boundaries of Moravia was finally confirmed. After 1972 the so-called integration of national councils and municipalities took place, the result of which was that more municipalities were administered by local national councils in so-called central municipalities.
CHANGES AFTER THE FALL OF COMMUNIST SYSTEM
Following the year 1989, the artificially formed relations were loosened and integrated municipalities regained independence. The municipalities of Hroznatín, Kojatín, Třesov, and Valdíkov were formed or renewed. Abolishment of regional national councils resulted in abolishment of regions. Nevertheless, many governmental institutions continue to work in line with the territorial arrangement of former regions. New regions were formed in 2000. The district of Třebíč became part of the region of Jihlava, later renamed as the region of Vysočina. Boundaries of Moravia will probably never be renewed.
Nonetheless, in terms of dealings with the European Union, the newly-formed regions are too small. Therefore, it will probably be necessary to form larger units in order to facilitate international cooperation. In our case it will probably mean to unite the regions of Vysočina and Brno.
FORMATION OF THE MICROREGION
On January 6th, 1999, in Budišov, the project of the microregion was formed. This microregion would comprise a group of municipalities that would work together when projecting and realizing projects which require cooperation of neighbouring municipalities. The project was approved in Vladislav on February 12th, 1999. Participation of individual municipalities in this project was approved at meetings of respective local councils. The microregion was established at the meeting in Budišov on April 21st, 1999. On May 7th, 1999, the association Horácko-Ecological Region was recorded into the Associations of Legal Entities Register at the District Authority in Třebíč. On November 11th, 1999, at the meeting in Budišov, the municipality of Zahrádka was accepted as a new member of the microregion.
ABOLISHMENT OF DISTRICT AUTHORITIES
With effect from January 1st, 2003, the microregion was divided between three municipalities (Třebíč, Náměšť nad Oslavou, Velké Meziříčí). As to registry offices and building offices, their spheres of effectiveness remain, for the time being, unchanged.
POSITION OF THE MICROREGION
The microregion of Horácko lies in the Czech Republic. The region of Vysočina, the district of Třebíč. The area is situated between the towns of Třebíč, Náměšť nad Oslavou, and Velké Meziříčí. In terms of geographic coordinates, the microregion spreads over the area:
15° 52' 43" – 16° 09' 30" east longitude,
49° 09' 20" – 49° 20' 01" north latitude.
The former regional city of Brno lies 45 km (28 mi) to the east and the capital city of Prague 145 km (90 mi) to the northwest. The nearest bordering country is Austria, the land of Lower Austria. The nearest metropolis is Vienna.
The whole microregion lies in the area of the district of Třebíč, is divided into 28 municipalities and 33 cadastral areas, and comprises 33 villages.
Since January 1st, 2003, it has been administered by municipalities in Třebíč, Náměšť nad Oslavou, and Velké Meziříčí. There are three building offices – in Budišov, Náměšť nad Oslavou, and Třebíč – in the area. Registry offices are at local authorities in Budišov, Rudíkov, Tasov, Vladislav, and at municipalities in Náměšť nad Oslavou and Třebíč
There live 9494 inhabitants (Census 2001) in 33 villages of the region, 4,737 of whom are men (49.9 %).
The largest number of inhabitants (1,166) lives in Budišov. Among municipalities, the most populated is Vladislav, which has 1,225 inhabitants (including Hostákov and Střížov).
The least number of inhabitants lives in Klementice (31), among municipalities in Přeckov (64).
There are 3,140 houses in the microregion, the most in Budišov (380), the least in Klementice (19), among municipalities in Přeckov (27).
Average population density is 44.4 inhabitants/km2 (17.1 inhabitants/mi2),
the largest in Vladislav - 159.2 inhabitants/km2 (61.5 inhabitants/mi2),
the least in Přeckov - 13.9 inhabitants/km2 (5.4 inhabitants/mi2).
82.3 % of inhabitants profess themselves to be of Czech nationality, the most in Vlčatín (96.6 %), the least in Třesov (61.4 %).
13.0 % of inhabitants espouse Moravian nationality, the most in Třesov (38.6 %), the least in Vlčatín (1.4 %).
There live 15 foreigners (0.2 %) in the whole microregion.
The microregion of Horácko spreads over an area of 214.02 km2 (82.63 mi2).
The largest cadastral area is that of Tasov - 13.71 km2 (5.29 mi2), among municipalities that of Vladislav (including Hostákov and Střížov) - 18.50 km2 (7.14 mi2).
The least cadastral area belongs to Klementice - 0.65 km2 (0.25 mi2), among municipalities to Kozlany - 3.12 km2 (1.20 mi2).
Kinds of land in the microregion are as follows:
kind of land, area in hectares (acres), the most, the least
arable 11,861 (29,309) Tasov 800 (1,976) Klementice 25 (62)
gardens and orchards 274 (678) Budišov 41 (101) Vaneč 2 (5)
meadows 1,320 (3,267) Tasov 103 (255) Klementice 1 (2.5)
pastures 376 (931) Trnava 32 (79) Kozlany 0 (0)
woods 5,447 (13,482) Studenec 329 (814) Okarec 30 (74)
water tracts 583 (1,443) Koněšín 58 (144) Číměř 0 (0)
built-up area 225 (557) Budišov 22 (54) Klementice 1 (2.5)
other areas 1,302 (3,223) Trnava 91 (225) Klementice 1 (2.5)
The area lies in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands.
In the north, its part, the Křižanovská Higlands, is divided into the Bítešská Highlands in the east and the Brtnická Highlands in the west.
The Jevišovická Hills spread in the south, eastern part of which is formed by the Znojemská Hills, and western part by the Jaroměřická valley.
The highest point of the microregion is the hill Na Bučných in cadastral area of Hroznatín - 640 m (700 yd) - in the Bítešská Highlands.
The lowest point is the river Oslava on the boundary of cadastral areas of Zahrádka, Ocmanice, and Naloučany - 369 m (404 yd).
GEOLOGY AND PEDOLOGY
Palaeozoic amphibolo-biotitic granite forms almost the whole of northern part of the region, with the exception of Rudíkov where Pleistocene loess is found. In the south of the microregion, Moldanubic rocks can be found – amphibolites, serpentinites, and migmatites penetrated with Palaeozoic granites and Pleistocene loess.
Deposits of quartz veins (amethyst, smoky quartz) are in the surroundings of Hostákov and Valdíkov. Tungsten ores and black tourmaline can be found near Hostákov, moldavites near Vladislav, Číměř, and Střížov.
Almost the whole of the area is covered with saturated brown soil and brown earth, in the surroundings of Vladislav and Koněšín pseudogley can also be found.
Brooks in the microregion are tributary to two rivers – the Jihlava river in the southwest and the Oslava river in the northeast. They form river basins of the Dyje, the Morava, and the Dunaj (the Danube), which disembogues itself into the Black Sea.
The longest water stream is the Mlýnský brook - 12.5 km (7.8 mi); when we exclude the river Jihlava, which is flooded by the Dalešice Dam.
There are no natural lakes in the region. However, several water reservoirs and, especially, many ponds can be found here. The largest pond is Dubovec, which is situated in cadastral area of Častotice, the municipality of Zahrádka - 31.2282 ha (77.1067 ac). The largest water tract is the Dalešice Dam – 146.5278 ha (361.7970 ac), total area of which is 480 ha (1,185 ac).
The microregion belongs to a mildly warm climatic area. Wind blows mainly westerly or north-westerly.
The average temperature in January is -2 to -3 °C (about 27 °F). There are 110 - 130 frost days in winter, in the northwest up to 140 days. The July average temperature is 17-18°C (about 64 °F), in the northwest only about 16 °C (61 °F). The number of summer days is 40 - 50, in the northwest only 30 - 40.
The total of precipitation is 350 - 450 mm in summer, 200 - 300 mm in winter. The average yearly total of precipitation in Budišov is 610 mm.
There are 60 - 80 days with snow cover, in the south only about 50, in the northwest up to 100.
In the northwest and in the surroundings of Tasov, Hercynian flora with predominating coniferous woods can be found. Pannonian thermophilous flora in river valleys comprises also deciduous woods. Steppes and forest steppes can also be found in some places.
There are three vegetation zones in the region: under-mountain zone in the northwest and northeast, lower-hills zone in the surroundings of the Dalešice Dam, and higher-hills zone in the rest of the region. Upon the Kobylinec hill near Trnava pasqueflower is found. Regrettably, the most common plants are wild roses, brambles and nestles.
Man does not behave properly as far as nature is concerned and much remaines to be done, especially in the area of woods-maintenance. Nowadays, nobody but an experienced mushroom picker is able to enjoy woods to the full.
You can meet three biotypes in the region – woods of medium and higher altitudes, cultural landscape, and pond area.
In the northwest we can find woods of higher altitudes with clearings, brooks, and wet meadows. Fauna typical of woods can be found here, especially hares, roe, foxes, hedgehogs etc. In central part cultural zones with low-altitude pond area are located. This area is rich in rodents, pheasants live here, and you can also meet storks and herons. Buzzard is a typical representative of birds of prey. Small steppe zones with its characteristic fauna – lizards, common snakes, vipers etc. – can be found straggled over the whole region. Many ponds and the Dalešice Dam are rich in fish, particularly carps and pikes, and their surroundings can boast great variety of waterfowl – grebes, ducks, and swans. Many species of insect inhabit the region. Unfortunately, cockchafers almost disappeared, in spite of the fact they once lived here in large numbers. It is not possible to find here crayfish any more. Bumblebees, lizards, partridges, frogs, newts and other species are decreasing in their numbers. It is necessary to pay more attention to nature preservation.
Municipalities of the microregion are rich in smaller buildig monuments, cultural heritage, and natural beauties straggled over landscape and in built-up areas of municipalities.
Church buildings and religious artefacts are the most usual cultural monuments here and in the whole South Moravia as well. There are nine churches and several chapels in the region. You can find a small chapel or a wayside shrine in almost every village. There are also many crosses in the area. It is possible to see statues and sculptural groups in Budišov, Tasov and Vladislav, in places also reconciliation crosses and stones.
Secular monuments can be found in the region as well. There is a château and a museum in Budišov, castle ruins in Tasov, Kozlany and Hartvíkovice, a stronghold in a relatively good state of preservation in Nárameč and Pyšel. There were more strongholds in other villages but almost nothing remained from them to the present.
As to natural beauties, Wilson Rock near Hartvíkovice should not be forgotten, as well as natural formation Kobylinec near Trnava with occurence of pasqueflower. Picturesque boulder islets can be found throughout the whole region. Moreover, there is a very interesting rocky valley of a brook near Tasov, and extraordinarily picturesque small rocky lake near Kojatín.
There is a developed private service sector in the region. An inn or a restaurant can be found in every larger village. Nevertheless, mostly open only in evening hours. You can have your meal in Budišov, Vladislav, in a wine bar near Vaneč, in a roadside cafe near Okarec, and partially also in Tasov, where there is a confectionery as well. There is nonstop sale of baked goods in Zahrádka and a food store or a grocery shop in almost every village. Other goods are sold only in bigger municipalities. Many craftsmen work in every village. You can find detailed information about services, especially places where you can have your meal and other services, on websites of individual municipalities.
Moreover, there is a post office in some municipalities.
There is a private surgery office in every larger municipality. People with more serious health troubles have to be brought to hospital in Třebíč or Mostiště. Health centres can be found in Budišov and Vladislav, whereas there is a doctor present in other municipalities only on some days. A pharmacy is in Budišov. Veterinary service is also provided.
Agriculture predominates in the microregion. Industry forms only a lesser part, mainly in form of smallish private premises.
Agricultural cooperatives are active here, as well as other plant and animal enterprises. Private farmers also work here. As to field crops, potatoes, rye and barley, in places also maize, often rape, clover and legumes are raised. Animal farming includes pigs, cattle and poultry (including ducks), in Kojatín and Rohy also horse breeding. Fish farming is widespread in the region.
Several organizations are established in the area, including the State's Woods engaged in woods maintenance and wood exploitation. Large part of woods is in private hands. Industrial production is concentrated mainly in larger municipalities of the microregion – Budišov and Vladislav. It si less developed in other places.
The region is crossed by two railway tracks and a dense network of roads, quality of which is not satisfactory. There is no airport in the microregion.
Railway transport is formed by the track no. 240 Brno-Havlíčkův Brod with stations at Studenec and Vladislav. All kinds of railway traffic are provided here. The track no. 252 to Křižanov intersect the earlier mentioned one at Studenec with stations at Pozďatín, Kojatín, Budišov, Rudíkov, Vlčatín and Oslavička. Only passenger service is provided here with partial freight traffic between Studenec and Budišov.
Road network is relatively dense. It is formed by primary road from Brno to Třebíč (12 km (7.5 mi) long in the area), motorway near Tasov (200m (219 yd) in the region), and by a network of secondary (44 km (27 mi)) and tertiary (105 km (65 mi)) roads. Some municipalities are connected by local roads which can be used for transport between them. Quality of roads in the region is not good, most of them could be considered as strengthened dirt roads. It will be necessary to build a quality road network which will make quality transport possible.
Bus transport is provided by firms Trado-Bus from Třebíč, ZDAR Žďár nad Sázavou, BOS, s.r.o., Velká Bíteš, and by several private carriers. There are stops in all villages, in places even at secluded houses. However, it will be necessary to optimize bus routes in order to minimize costs. This is a task for the whole microregion.
Fuel is provided by two petrol stations – in Budišov and near the Studenec railway station.
TOURISM AND RECREATION
Hiking predominates in the microregion while cycle touring is developing. A network of cycle paths is being formed. Further development of mototourism, mainly from abroad, is hindered by lack of accommodation facilities.
About 70 km (43 mi) of marked hiking trails is maintained by the Czech Tourist Club.
Accommodation facilities are in Hartvíkovice, Vladislav and Hroznatín, seasonal accommodation is available at caravan site on the Hartvíkovice beach at the Dalešice Dam. The Hartvíkovice beach offers possibility of pleasant bathing and doing water sports. You can bathe in the same dam also near Třesov and Koněšín, in some ponds, and in the only swimming pool in Kamenná.
Recreation in weekend cottages, a great number of which there is near ponds, has long tradition. Only several cottages remained at the dam below Koněšín. Unfortunately, in the woods above the dam, several small cottage towns of no taste were built, which make mass consumer tourism with all its side effects possible.
There are several protected areas in the region, but, in view of a good state of preservation and attractiveness of local nature, the landscape protection is not satisfactory.
A part of the area lies in the nature park Třebíčsko with natural beauties Kobylinec near Trnava and Pazderna near Přeckov. There are also several very old trees in the region. Because of presence of other interesting natural formations, it will be proper to propose establishment of other protected areas.
CULTURE AND SCHOOL SYSTEM
As there are mainly smaller villages, a variety of cultural facilities is not too great in the region. Tasov is a birthplace of a well-known poet and priest Jakub Deml. From this reason, the community of Tasov organize occasional commemoration meetings attended by personalities of cultural life. A literary monument was erected here. Local amateur ensembles are active in Budišov and Koněšín. Several citizens perform in the ensemble Musica Animata in Třebíč.
Cultural houses, where performances and folk dances can be organized, are present in some municipalities. Pupils from smaller villages attend schools that are present only in bigger municipalities. Four schools (Budišov, Rudíkov, Tasov, Vladislav) can boast computer rooms which are aimed not only for pupils but also for training of municipal authorities staff and for public. Access to the Internet will also be offered here for public.
Almost all believers are of Roman Catholic denomination (59.3 %). Five parishes are associated into Třebíč's deanery, which was formed by merging with former deaneries in Přibyslavice and Náměšť. Deanery in Velké Meziříčí newly associate three parishes.
25.5 % of inhabitants in the region is without denomination, the most in Valdíkov (54.9 %), the least in Přeckov (3.1 %).
Several interest associations of different kinds are active in the microregion. Most numerous are those with long tradition – the Voluntary Firemen´s Union, the Hunting Association, the Sokol (falcon), the Junák (scout) and other organizations.
Sports activity corresponds to a size of villages in the region.
Football is the main sport, table tennis is played in Číměř and Vladislav, motocross has its base in Smrk, and hockey is played in Vladislav. People go in for other sports only recreationally.
CONSTRUCTION OF ENGINEERING NETWORKS
With the exception of sewerage system, which is in places in an unsatisfactory state, basic infrastructure is built up in municipalities of the region.
Most municipalities have water and gas mains, sewerage system is under construction. The whole area is covered by telephone network of the firm Telecom. There are plans to build data network. Wireless connection is provided by firms Eurotel, T-Mobile and Český mobil (czech mobile), whose transmitters are in the microregion and its surroundings. Electric current is distributed by means of overhead wires, which decreases environmental quality in the region to a certain extent.